Components And Types Of Lithium-ion Batteries

First, the components:

 Steel shell / aluminum shell / cylindrical / flexible packaging series:

(1) cathode - active substances are generally lithium manganese oxide or lithium cobalt oxide, nickel cobalt manganese manganate materials, electric bicycles are generally nickel nickel cobalt manganate (commonly known as ternary) or ternary + a small amount of lithium manganate, pure Of lithium manganese oxide and lithium iron phosphate due to the large size, poor performance or high cost and gradually fade out. The electrode fluid uses an electrolytic aluminum foil having a thickness of 10 to 20 microns.Lithium Ion Battery

(2) Diaphragm - a specially formed polymer film, the film has a microporous structure, allowing lithium ions to pass freely, and electrons can not pass.Lithium Ion Battery

(3) negative electrode - active material is graphite, or approximate graphite structure of carbon, conductive current collector using the thickness of 7-15 micron electrolytic copper foil.

(4) Organic electrolytic solution - A carbonate-based solvent in which lithium hexafluorophosphate is dissolved, and a gel-like electrolyte is used for the polymer.

(5) battery shell - divided into steel shell (square type rarely used), aluminum shell, nickel-plated iron shell (cylindrical battery use), aluminum plastic film (flexible packaging), as well as the battery cap, Negative lead terminal.

Second, the main types:

   Lithium-ion batteries are classified into liquid lithium-ion batteries and polymer lithium-ion batteries (PLBs), depending on the electrolyte materials used in lithium-ion batteries.

Lithium-ion battery rechargeable lithium-ion battery is the current mobile phone, laptop and other modern digital products, the most widely used battery, but it is more "squeamish" in the use of not overcharge, over discharge (will damage the battery or make it scrapped) The Therefore, there are protective components on the battery or protection circuit to prevent expensive battery damage. Lithium-ion battery charging requirements are high, to ensure that the termination voltage accuracy within ± 1%, the major semiconductor device factory has developed a variety of lithium-ion battery charging IC, to ensure safe, reliable and fast charge.Lithium Ion Battery

   Cell phones are basically using lithium-ion batteries. Proper use of lithium-ion batteries is important to extend battery life. It can be made according to the requirements of different electronic products can be made flat rectangular, cylindrical, rectangular and button, and there are several batteries connected in series with the battery pack. Lithium-ion battery rated voltage, because the material changes, generally 3.7V, lithium iron phosphate (hereinafter referred to as phosphorus iron) was 3.2V. Full charge when the termination of the charging voltage is generally 4.2V, phosphorus iron 3.65V. The termination discharge voltage of the lithium ion battery is 2.75V ~ 3.0V (the battery factory gives the working voltage range or gives the termination discharge voltage, the parameters are slightly different, generally 3.0V, phosphorus iron is 2.5V). Less than 2.5V (phosphorus iron 2.0V) continue to discharge called over-discharge, over discharge on the battery will be damaged.Lithium Ion Battery

   Lithium-ion batteries are lithium-ion batteries are not suitable for large current discharge, excessive current discharge will reduce the discharge time (the internal will produce a higher temperature and loss of energy), and may be dangerous; but lithium iron phosphate Cathode material lithium battery, can be 20C or even larger (C is the battery capacity, such as C = 800mAh, 1C charging rate that is charging current of 800mA) high current charge and discharge, especially for electric vehicles. So the battery production plant gives the maximum discharge current, in use should be less than the maximum discharge current. Lithium-ion battery on the temperature have certain requirements, the factory gives the charging temperature range, discharge temperature range and storage temperature range, over-voltage charging will cause permanent damage to lithium-ion battery. Lithium-ion battery charging current should be based on the recommendations of the battery manufacturers, and require limited current circuit to avoid over-current (overheating). Commonly used charging rate of 0.25C ~ 1C. In the high current charging often to detect the battery temperature, to prevent overheating damage to the battery or produce an explosion.